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Essex was founded in the 6th century as the kingdom of the East Saxons. It consisted of not only the modern county of Essex, but also Middlesex and parts of Hertfordshire.

Essex was a relatively weak kingdom, and from 664 to 825 was dominated by Mercia. Essex was absorbed into Wessex in 825, but came under Danelaw during the reign of Alfred the Great. In 917 Essex was won back by Edward the Elder and has been part of England ever since.

The Heptarchy
East Anglia | Essex | Kent | Mercia | Northumbria | Sussex | Wessex