The Norse or Northmen, commonly known as Vikings, were settled primarily in Scandanavia and northern Germany. Early in period, these peoples were loosely connected by common heritage and culture, but had no unified leadership. Primarily pagan, they became increasingly Christianized as the medieval ages proceeded.
Throughout the medieval period, most Norsemen would have been armed with a sword and short spear, or sometimes an axe or warhammer, and defended by a stout center-boss shield and a hauberk of maille, cuir bolli or scales. Norsemen often used bows and thrown weapons, but were not particularly renowned for their archery skills. The Norseman fought best on foot and hand to hand.
The Norse were known for their seamanship and their wide- ranging travel, as well as their willingness to rape, pillage and burn just about anything. Each fast and sturdy longship could carry twenty to forty armed fighters on raids anywhere near water. Since longships drew less than four feet, this included a surprising distance inland along rivers. Groups of warriors in longships would go viking on raids across vast distances, striking all of northern and western Europe, the British Isles, northern Africa and even into the Mediterranean. Norsemen sailed along riverways deep into the Russian steppe.
A typical Norse raid involved a sea voyage of days or weeks to a foreign coastline, where they would beach the longships and march a short distance inland, then attack a settlement or monastery with little or no warning. After resistance was quickly overcome, the Norse would loot anything valuable and retreat to the longships before reinforcements could arrive. Such a raid devastated Lindisfarne Abbey.
Until the disasterous defeat of a Norse army under Harald Hardrada at Stamford Bridge in 1066 C.E., the Vikings were one of the most feared and hated peoples in Europe. Many of the fortifications raised in the early part of the medieval period were raised, at least partly, as a defense against Norse raids.
The depredations of the Norse were so severe that the clergy even had a prayer which specifically entreated God: From the Fury of the Norsemen, Good Lord deliver us!
As the medieval period progressed, many Norsemen began to settle in those lands they formerly raided. The Normans were descended from Norsemen who settled in northern France and intermarried with the locals. Many such settlements were founded in northern England, coastal Scotland and Ireland; the modern city of Dublin started as one such settlement.
The westernmost Norse settlements were to be found in Iceland and Greenland, and Norsemen were probably the first Europeans to reach the New World, founding a single, ill-fated settlement in what they called Vinland.
One of the most notable features of Norse settlement in foreign land was the speed at which they blended with the local culture. Within a few generations of initial settlement, most Norse would have assimilated entirely, merging with the original inhabitants of an area, and very likely fighting off viking raids by their former cousins.