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Ireland is an island west of England. Ireland is inhabited by predominantly Celts, despite successful invasions from England. Various forms of Gaelic were spoken in Ireland throughout period, although English is now the majority language.

From the earliest recorded times Ireland has been split into four provinces, Leinster, Ulster, Munster and Connacht, although sometimes Meath was considered a fifth. These contained individual kingdoms but there also existed the concept of a High King.

According to tradition, Ireland was converted to Christianity by St. Patrick after his arrival in 432 AD.

In the 10th century Vikings established a settlement called An Dubh Lin, which was to become Dublin.

The Republic of Ireland has been in existence since 1949, with Dublin as the capital.

Arts & Sciences


  • Early Irish Caligraphy by W Reeves and Ferdinand Keller, Ulster Journal of Archaeology , First Series, Vol. 8, (1860), pp. 210-230, 291-308