Difference between revisions of "Pigment"

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A '''pigment''' is generally understood as a colored particle that is usually ground down to powder form to help distribute evenly the pigment easily in a variety of uses. Pigments, unlike [[dye]]s, are insoluble in a liquid vehicle or binder. Colored or colorless pigment particles can be dyed to create a '''pigment lake''', in which the resulting color is the combination of pigment and dye. Pigments can be used to make [[ink]]s, [[paint]], [[food]], [[textile]]s and [[cosmetics]].
'''Pigment''' is what provides the colour in [[dye]]s- it's what gets into or onto the material to change its colour. Pigments that are used to colour [[textile]]s or [[food]] are called [[dyestuffs]], pigments used for [[writing]] are [[ink]]s, and pigments used for [[painting]] are [[paint]]s or just pigments.
 
   
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=Period pigments=
Dyestuffs tend to be solids that are soaked in water to extract them, and then [[fibre]]s are added which soak up the water soluble dye. A [[mordant]] is added as a setting agent to make the [[dye]] stick to the fibre.
 
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'''NOTE: Pigments in powder form are more easily inhaled and thus are dangerous to handle. Many pigments listed here are extremely toxic and poisonous if ingested, inhaled or come in contact with skin. Research each material carefully before EVEN ATTEMPTING to handle the pigment in dry or liquid form.'''
   
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==Blacks==
Paints tend to require more opacity than dyes. The same ingredient as a dyestuff may be used, but fine sawdust or other filler agents (e.g. rag scrapings) are added to give the dye bulk. This pigment is intended to mostly sit on the surface of the object, not soak through it. Some pigments are available for use as paints that cannot be used for dyestuffs (e.g. ground lapis lazuli). These pigments do not have water soluble colour, they only need to be ground fine enough to be able to be picked up with a paintbrush.
 
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*'''black (from plant material)''' - derived from charred wood, twigs, pits, nut shells, etc.
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*'''ivory/bone black''' - derived from charred animal bone and/or ivory
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*'''lamp black''' - derived from the soot of burning linseed oil
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==Blues==
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*'''azurite''' - a blue mineral. An acceptable modern equivalent would be '''cobalt blue.'''
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*'''ultramarine''' - lapis lazuli, a blue rock. An acceptable modern equivalent would be '''(artificial) ultramarine blue'''.
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==Greens==
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*'''malachite'''
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*'''terre-verte''' - a green mineral. The English name for this pigment is '''green earth'''.
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*'''verdigris'''
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==Reds==
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*'''cinabrese''' - a red rock, a red ochre. An acceptable modern equivalent would be '''red iron oxide'''.
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*'''dragonsblood''' - derived from the gum of an unspecified Asian tree.
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*'''hematite''' - a red rock, a red ochre.
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*'''lac'''
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*'''red lead''' - lead tetroxide.
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*'''sinoper''' - a red rock, a red ochre. An acceptable modern equivalent would be '''red iron oxide'''.
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*'''vermilion''' - mercuric sulfide. An acceptable modern equvalent would be '''cadmium red light'''.
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==Whites==
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*'''lead white'''
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*'''lime white'''
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==Yellows==
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*'''arzica'''
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*'''giallorino'''
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*'''ocher''' - a yellow rock, a yellow ochre.
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*'''orpiment''' - arsenic sulfide. An acceptable modern equivalent would be '''cadmium yellow'''.
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*'''realgar'''
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*'''saffron'''
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=External links==
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*[http://www.noteaccess.com/Texts/Cennini/index.htm Il Libro dell'Arte (The Craftman's Handbook) by Ceninno Cennini online]
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*[http://www.paintmaking.com/historic_pigments.htm Historic pigment list at paintmaking.com]
 
[[category:colour]]
 
[[category:colour]]
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[[category:painting]]
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[[category:arts]]

Revision as of 08:44, 26 June 2007

A pigment is generally understood as a colored particle that is usually ground down to powder form to help distribute evenly the pigment easily in a variety of uses. Pigments, unlike dyes, are insoluble in a liquid vehicle or binder. Colored or colorless pigment particles can be dyed to create a pigment lake, in which the resulting color is the combination of pigment and dye. Pigments can be used to make inks, paint, food, textiles and cosmetics.

Period pigments

NOTE: Pigments in powder form are more easily inhaled and thus are dangerous to handle. Many pigments listed here are extremely toxic and poisonous if ingested, inhaled or come in contact with skin. Research each material carefully before EVEN ATTEMPTING to handle the pigment in dry or liquid form.

Blacks

  • black (from plant material) - derived from charred wood, twigs, pits, nut shells, etc.
  • ivory/bone black - derived from charred animal bone and/or ivory
  • lamp black - derived from the soot of burning linseed oil

Blues

  • azurite - a blue mineral. An acceptable modern equivalent would be cobalt blue.
  • ultramarine - lapis lazuli, a blue rock. An acceptable modern equivalent would be (artificial) ultramarine blue.

Greens

  • malachite
  • terre-verte - a green mineral. The English name for this pigment is green earth.
  • verdigris

Reds

  • cinabrese - a red rock, a red ochre. An acceptable modern equivalent would be red iron oxide.
  • dragonsblood - derived from the gum of an unspecified Asian tree.
  • hematite - a red rock, a red ochre.
  • lac
  • red lead - lead tetroxide.
  • sinoper - a red rock, a red ochre. An acceptable modern equivalent would be red iron oxide.
  • vermilion - mercuric sulfide. An acceptable modern equvalent would be cadmium red light.

Whites

  • lead white
  • lime white

Yellows

  • arzica
  • giallorino
  • ocher - a yellow rock, a yellow ochre.
  • orpiment - arsenic sulfide. An acceptable modern equivalent would be cadmium yellow.
  • realgar
  • saffron

External links=