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Occitania refers to the area in which the langue d'oc was spoken during the Middle Ages. The area is roughly equivalent to the southern third of France, but also takes in parts of Italy and Spain. It was home to the troubadours.

The distinctive nature of Occitania was largely lost as a result of the Albigensian Crusade, which saw nobles from northern France take control of large portions of Occitania.