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The art and science of growing crops. Agriculture, in period, ranged from simple subsistance farming to complex, well-ordered, well-planned plantations.

Advances in agriculture, such as crop rotation and the three-field system (allowing 1/3 of the land to lie fallow, 1/3 growing legumes or other nitrogen-fixing vegatables, and 1/3 growing grain) allowed for increased population during the Middle Ages, due to increased crop production.