Frying is a method of cooking food in fat. Frying caramelizes, crisps, and browns the outer surface of the food. Deep frying means cooking the food in enough oil or fat to completely immerse it, cooking it evenly on all sides. Shallow frying doesn't immerse the food, so it must be turned to cook on all sides. A variety of fats can be used for frying, including butter, oil, lard and dripping.