Difference between revisions of "Sapphire"

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Sapphires are extremely rare and in [[period]] probably came to [[Europe]] from [[India]] via the [[Silk Road]].
 
Sapphires are extremely rare and in [[period]] probably came to [[Europe]] from [[India]] via the [[Silk Road]].
  
Sapphires take their name from a Greek word meaning "blue stone". Also known as the "Stone of Heaven", during the [[Middle Ages]] the sapphire changed its the name referred to ''lapis lazuli''. The following is a list of blue gemstones known in [[medieval]] times:
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Sapphires take their name from a Greek word meaning "blue stone". Also known as the "Stone of Heaven", during the [[Middle Ages]] the sapphire changed its identity—originally the name referred to ''lapis lazuli''. The following is a list of blue gemstones known in [[medieval]] times:
 
*sapphire (also known as ''ultramarine''; originally referred to lapis lazuli; changed its identity following the [[Crusades]])
 
*sapphire (also known as ''ultramarine''; originally referred to lapis lazuli; changed its identity following the [[Crusades]])
 
*cyan (azurite or poss. sodalite; also referred to a ceramic imitation of ''turquoise'')
 
*cyan (azurite or poss. sodalite; also referred to a ceramic imitation of ''turquoise'')
 
*callais (also known as turquoise; however, [[Pliny]] classed it as an emerald due to its greenish tint)
 
*callais (also known as turquoise; however, [[Pliny]] classed it as an emerald due to its greenish tint)
*hyacinth (the identity of this stone is problematic; most experts believe it refers to modern sapphire (corundum), Pliny's description of a stone "weaker and more diluted in color than [[amethyst]], whose beauty fades before it reaches the eye" seems to be a perfect description of ''iolite'', a variety of the mineral codierite, also known by the trade name "water sapphire")
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*hyacinth (the identity of this stone is problematic; most experts believe it refers to modern sapphire (corundum)—nevertheless, Pliny's description of a stone "weaker and more diluted in color than [[amethyst]], whose beauty fades before it reaches the eye" seems to be a perfect description of ''iolite'', a variety of the mineral codierite, also known by the trade name "water sapphire")
  
 
See also
 
See also
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*Sydney H. Ball, ''A Roman Book on Precious Stones'' (includes Eng. trans. of C. Plinii Secundi ''liber xxxvii de Naturalis Historia''), Los Angeles, 1950
 
*Sydney H. Ball, ''A Roman Book on Precious Stones'' (includes Eng. trans. of C. Plinii Secundi ''liber xxxvii de Naturalis Historia''), Los Angeles, 1950
 
*[http://www.pbm.com/~lindahl/cariadoc/gemstones.html Cariadoc's ''"On gemstones"'']
 
*[http://www.pbm.com/~lindahl/cariadoc/gemstones.html Cariadoc's ''"On gemstones"'']
*Eduard & Franz-Xaver Erni, ''GEMSTONES: Symbols of Beauty & Power'', Tuscon AZ, 2000
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*Eduard Gubelin & Franz-Xaver Erni, ''GEMSTONES: Symbols of Beauty & Power'', Tuscon AZ, 2000
 
*Walter Schumann, ''Gemstones of the World'', New York, (rev) 1997
 
*Walter Schumann, ''Gemstones of the World'', New York, (rev) 1997
  
  
 
[[category:gemstones]]
 
[[category:gemstones]]

Revision as of 14:13, 26 August 2006

The sapphire is one of the four traditional precious gemstones, distinguished by its deep blue colour. Lighter varieties of sapphire are mined in Ceylon. Like the ruby it is a variety of the mineral corundum.

Sapphires are extremely rare and in period probably came to Europe from India via the Silk Road.

Sapphires take their name from a Greek word meaning "blue stone". Also known as the "Stone of Heaven", during the Middle Ages the sapphire changed its identity—originally the name referred to lapis lazuli. The following is a list of blue gemstones known in medieval times:

  • sapphire (also known as ultramarine; originally referred to lapis lazuli; changed its identity following the Crusades)
  • cyan (azurite or poss. sodalite; also referred to a ceramic imitation of turquoise)
  • callais (also known as turquoise; however, Pliny classed it as an emerald due to its greenish tint)
  • hyacinth (the identity of this stone is problematic; most experts believe it refers to modern sapphire (corundum)—nevertheless, Pliny's description of a stone "weaker and more diluted in color than amethyst, whose beauty fades before it reaches the eye" seems to be a perfect description of iolite, a variety of the mineral codierite, also known by the trade name "water sapphire")

See also

References:

  • Sydney H. Ball, A Roman Book on Precious Stones (includes Eng. trans. of C. Plinii Secundi liber xxxvii de Naturalis Historia), Los Angeles, 1950
  • Cariadoc's "On gemstones"
  • Eduard Gubelin & Franz-Xaver Erni, GEMSTONES: Symbols of Beauty & Power, Tuscon AZ, 2000
  • Walter Schumann, Gemstones of the World, New York, (rev) 1997