Drawn thread work
Drawn-thread work is generally considered to be among the first types of true lace. It was created by taking ordinary linen, and pulling out certain threads, or cutting other threads, to create spaces in the linen, and stitching around the holes to makes sure they remained strong. This is similar in principle to modern hardanger - but hardanger itself is very much out of period.
The holes were not at first left completely empty. Any remaining threads were left as a framework for embroidery in elaborate patterns. This style was known as Reticella.
Laces made in this fashion were quite popular and were used in collars, cuffs and table-ware.
After a while, the laces became more and more "lacy" with more and more gaps - so many threads were pulled out that the fabric became flimsy. Eventually the lacemakers realised that, rather than starting with whole-cloth and removing threads, they could start with nothing, and make braids from needle-made stitches that looked like the cloth left over from pulling out the threads. This was the true birth of needle lace So the lace-makers dispensed with carefully drawing threads out and began to build their own frameworks with the embroidery stitches, this become known as "punto in aria" (points in the air).