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An astronomer is one who studies celestial bodies and their motions. Used in the middle ages to make prediction using astrology.

With the invention of the telescope greater amounts of information and precision were obtainable.

Early astronomers had great difficulty predicting events such as eclipses, primarily due to their models using extremely complex motions to describe what they saw as they believed that the Earth was at the centre of the universe. Numerous models were developed and all failed to predict motions accurately until the 17th century.