Difference between revisions of "Wattle and Daub"

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(rough notes, needs lots of work)
 
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Wattle and Daub is a simple cnstruction method in which a fench is constructed by twining flexible sticks between (non-flexible) posts, and then covering the fence in mud. Wattle fencing is constructed in the same manner, but generally leaves off the mud.
 
Wattle and Daub is a simple cnstruction method in which a fench is constructed by twining flexible sticks between (non-flexible) posts, and then covering the fence in mud. Wattle fencing is constructed in the same manner, but generally leaves off the mud.
   
The name wattle refers the flexibile wooden sticks, not to a species of wood, and daub to the process of patting mud on the fence.
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The name wattle refers the flexibile wooden sticks, not to a species of wood, and daub to the process of patting mud on the fence. (although species of acacia in Australia are called wattle because settlers found them most suitable for use as wattels.http://www.aussie-info.com/identity/flora/wattle.phphttp://www.worldwidewattle.com/schools/name.php)
   
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Wattel and daub was used in a much greater area than medival europe- eg native americans
   
 
===Wattle fences and Wattle and Daub houses in 12th C Dublin===
 
===Wattle fences and Wattle and Daub houses in 12th C Dublin===
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reference: Murry, Hilary, 1983, "Viking and Early Medieval Buildings in Dublin" (BAR, Oxford) ISBN: 0-86054-235-1
 
reference: Murry, Hilary, 1983, "Viking and Early Medieval Buildings in Dublin" (BAR, Oxford) ISBN: 0-86054-235-1
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==other uses==
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*As a roadway in bogs
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==links:==
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* Poplar Cottage http://www.wealddown.co.uk/poplar-cottage-construction.htm- is a 17th C cotage constructed using wattle and daub, and also has some nice wattle fencing-
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http://www.wealddown.co.uk/poplar-cottage-gardens.htm
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*Winkhurst Kitchens http://www.wealddown.co.uk/winkhurst-reconstruction-dismantling.htm - a 16th C Kitchen outbuilding was deconstructed and moved. Here is a rare chance to see a genuine 16th C wall being pulled to pieces, and the wattles underneath.
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*wattle and daub in Wiltshire http://www.tonygraham.co.uk/house_repair/wattle_daub/WD.html - a masters thesis
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*links to examples including the shakespere house http://ah.bfn.org/a/DCTNRY/h/half.html
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*This site claims romans prefabricated wattel and daub walls http://www.museumoflondon.org.uk/frames.shtml?http://www.museumoflondon.org.uk/MOLsite/exhibits/hslondon/construct/walls.htm

Revision as of 17:36, 14 August 2005

introduction

Wattle and Daub is a simple cnstruction method in which a fench is constructed by twining flexible sticks between (non-flexible) posts, and then covering the fence in mud. Wattle fencing is constructed in the same manner, but generally leaves off the mud.

The name wattle refers the flexibile wooden sticks, not to a species of wood, and daub to the process of patting mud on the fence. (although species of acacia in Australia are called wattle because settlers found them most suitable for use as wattels.http://www.aussie-info.com/identity/flora/wattle.phphttp://www.worldwidewattle.com/schools/name.php)

Wattel and daub was used in a much greater area than medival europe- eg native americans

Wattle fences and Wattle and Daub houses in 12th C Dublin

posts

some posts with fire hardened points, modern studies showed no anti-rotting benefit of this vertical posts- round, generally with bark still on, average spacing 15-30cm. Spacing is not bigger with bigger posts, but with a few very thin internal house walls it was smaller. Occasionally posts are paired, some could be repairs (unlikely - very awkward to insert), but many appear original, to strengthen weak points. ends of posts adazed to rough points posts extend 20-40cm below ground. But that may not be original reading (don't need to be that deep) - may have been weighted down by house roofs Hammered into position (not inserted in dug trenches).


wattles

size dependant somewhat on size of posts more leightweight walls - fences, walls as part of a double wall construction, used av 15-25mm diameter wattles. Heavy single house walls and other heavy uses, av 20-30mm. Thinner wattles required when posts closer together, or less gaps in weave required. Wattles most likely derived from long term coppising, especially the thicker ones.

Woven behind every second post (ie in front, behind, in front, behind, etc) In one wall lowest 3 strands (and probbaly top 3 on some houses) plaited together as woven to form a cornice. This known from other locations (16th C Flemmish, modern ireland). The strip binds together the end better, and was probably on a moveable wall - more wear and tear.

figure 8 shaped knots of wattle found - probably used to bind tops of more roughly made walls, joins in fences and for simple joints. (similar shown in lutrel psalter fl63b) Fibres are probably twisted as worked- prevents snapping.

In some cases Blackthorn used as wattles in lower few rows of fences (not houses) - possibly to reter vermin. Irish accounts (12th C story Aislnge Meic Conglinne, 8th C laws) mention crests of blackthorn on fences to deter animals.


reference: Murry, Hilary, 1983, "Viking and Early Medieval Buildings in Dublin" (BAR, Oxford) ISBN: 0-86054-235-1



reference: Murry, Hilary, 1983, "Viking and Early Medieval Buildings in Dublin" (BAR, Oxford) ISBN: 0-86054-235-1

other uses

  • As a roadway in bogs


links:

http://www.wealddown.co.uk/poplar-cottage-gardens.htm