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The Vatican today is the residence of the pope, in Rome.

During the Middle Ages and Renaissance the feudal holdings of the pope were much larger, and included all of Rome and much of central Italy stretching west to the Adriatic coast. This area, known as the Papal States included the Duchy of Urbino as well as Viterbo and other lands.

The pope's holdings were only reduced to include just the Vatican city at the beginning of the Franco-Prussian war of 1870.