Difference between revisions of "Saxony"
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See: ''[[Saxon clothing]]''
See: ''[[Saxon clothing]]''
Latest revision as of 02:07, 9 May 2013
Saxony was originally a settlement area of the Saxons comprising the area of the modern German states of Bremen, Hamburg, Lower Saxony, North Rhine-Westphalia, Saxony-Anhalt and most of Schleswig-Holstein. Saxony was subdued by Charlemagne during the Saxon Wars from about 772 and was created as a stem duchy in 843 with the Treaty of Verdun. The Duchy of Saxony, like most Germanic states, fluctuated in size, land area and power throughout the majority of the medieval era until the formation of the modern country of Germany in 1918.
Rulers of Saxony
- Louis the Child, King of East Francia - 900-911
- Conrad the Younger, King of Germany - 911-912
- Henry the Fowler, Duke of Saxony - 912-936
- Otto I, Holy Roman Emperor - 936-973
- Bernard I, Duke of Saxony - 973-1011
- Bernard II, Duke of Saxony - 1011-1059
- Ordulf, Duke of Saxony - 1059-1072
- Magnus, Duke of Saxony - 1072-1106, Billung dynasty
- Lothair III, Holy Roman Emperor - 1106-1112
- Otto of Ballenstedt, Duke of Saxony - 1112-1115
- Lothair III, Holy Roman Emperor - 1115-1137
- Henry the Proud, Duke of Saxony - 1137-1139
- Albert the Bear, Duke of Saxony - 1138-1142
- Henry the Lion, Duke of Saxony and Duke of Bavaria - 1142-1180, Welf Dynasty
The Duchy Crumbles
- At this point in the Duchy of Saxony's history, everything fell apart. In 1176 Henry the Lion, the ruler of Saxony and Bavaria and one of the most powerful princes of northern Germany, refused to aid his cousin Emperor Frederick I Barbarossa in his campaign against the cities of Lombardy at the Battle of Legnano. In 1180 the ban of the empire was proclaimed against Henry at Würzburg (in abstentia), and 1181 the old Duchy of Saxony was cut up at the Diet of Gelnhausen into many small portions. The greater share of its western portion was given, as the Duchy of Westphalia, to the Archbishop of Cologne. The Saxon bishops, who had before this possessed sovereign authority in their territories, though under the suzerainty of the Duke of Saxony, gained imperial immediacy subject only to the imperial government. Saxon archbishops turned into prince-archbishops, such as the Prince-Archbishops of Bremen and Magdeburg, and the prince-bishops of Halberstadt, Lübeck, Ratzeburg, Schwerin as well as Verden, etc. The case was the same with a large number of secular countships and cities.
- 16th Century
- See: Saxon clothing
- 12th Century
- c. 1173-1175: Gospels of Henry the Lion (Evangeliar Heinrichs des Löwen)
- 13th Century
- c. 1240: Goslar Gospels (Goslarer Evangeliar)
The following are fictitious or legendary accounts loosely based on period instances:
- Tales and Legends of Saxony and Lusatia (1877)
- Maurice, the elector of Saxony; an historical romance, Vol 1 (1844)
- Maurice, the elector of Saxony; an historical romance, Vol 2 (1844)
- Maurice, the elector of Saxony; an historical romance, Vol 3 (1844)