Difference between revisions of "Renaissance"

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The '''Renaissance''' was a [[cultural movement]] and time period in the [[History of Europe]], considered to mark the end of the [[Middle Ages]]. The Renaissance is usually considered to have begun in the [[14th century]] in Italy and the [[16th century]] in northern [[Europe]].
It is also known as "'''Rinascimento'''" (in Italian).
The following article discusses the '''Renaissance''' in its most traditional form, as a cultural and scientific rebirth that began in [[14th century]] [[Italy]], where one of its main centers was [[Florence, Italy]], and then spread throughout Europe. In [[science]], [[theology]], [[literature]] and [[art]], the Renaissance began with a rediscovery of and focus on older Greek texts which had disappeared from the West in the latter years of the [[Roman Empire]].
"Renaissance" is a [[French]] word that literally means ''rebirth''. This name has been historically used in contrast to the '''[[Dark Ages]]''', a term coined by [[Petrarch]] to refer to what we now call the Middle Ages. Following Petrarch's lead, the term had long been considered appropriate because during the Renaissance, the [[literature]] and culture of the ancient civilizations of [[Greece]] and [[Rome]] were adopted by scholars and artists in Italy, and widely disseminated through [[printing]].
The term '''renaissance''' was probably first applied to this period of history by the Florentine painter [[Vasari]] in around 1550. [[Vasari]] used the term ''Renaissance'' to describe the changes in the world of [[art]] that occurred during that time. Many people today still make the mistake of identifying the renaissance as purely an artistic movement.
More properly, the '''renaissance''' was a movement that embodied both culture, thought, and especially learning. The '''renaissance''' itself can be identified with the rise of [[Humanism]] which began in Italy with authors such as [[Boccaccio]] and [[Petrarch]] in the [[14th century]] and ran through the [[15th century]] with [[Erasmus]] and many others, and into the [[High Renaissance]] period of the [[16th century]] when [[Mannerism]] became prevalent.
Towards the end of the Renaissance, scientists increasingly began to reject [[Greek]] (and biblical) sources in favor of new discoveries. Theologians continued to focus on the [[Greek]], as well as on the relatively new study [[Hebrew]] and [[Aramaic]]. The second half of the Renaissance is also the period of the [[Reformation]], although it could be argued that the conflict between [[Humanism]] and [[Scholasticism]], which was very much the footprint of the Renaissance, was also the starting point for the [[Reformation]]. In any case, the Renaissance and [[Reformation]] overlapped fairly heavily if you were to take a strict time-period viewpoint.
Rinascimento is also considered as a sort of natural evolution of italian [[Umanesimo]].
During the last quarter of the 20th century, however, more and more scholars began to take a view that the '''Renaissance''' was perhaps only one of many such movements. This was in large part due to the work of historians like [[Charles H. Haskins]], who made convincing cases for a "Renaissance of the 12th century," as well as by historians arguing for a "[[Carolingian renaissance]]." Both of these concepts are now accepted by the scholarly community at large; as a result, the present trend among historians is to discuss each so-called renaissance in more particular terms, e.g., the ''Italian Renaissance'', the ''English Renaissance'', etc. This terminology is particularly useful because it eliminates the need for fitting "The renaissance" into a chronology that previously held that it was preceded by the Middle Ages and followed by the [[Reformation]], which was sometimes patently false. The entire period is now more often replaced by the term 'Early Modern' in the practice of historians. See [[periodization]].
== [[Life in the Renaissance]] ==
== [[Life in the Renaissance]] ==
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Undoubtedly one of the major threads was forged by [[Henry VIII]] of [[England]] when he declared his realm independant of Rome, establishing his own [[Church of England]], and thereby beginning the trend whereby the [[Catholic Church]] ceased to be able to provide a supra-national force of unification.
Undoubtedly one of the major threads was forged by [[Henry VIII]] of [[England]] when he declared his realm independant of Rome, establishing his own [[Church of England]], and thereby beginning the trend whereby the [[Catholic Church]] ceased to be able to provide a supra-national force of unification.
== [[Learning in the Renaissance]] ==
Perhaps the most significant invention of the Renaissance was the [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Printing_press printing press]. Apart from allowing many copies of the [[Bible]] to be distributed much more easily and cheaply than copying by hand, the new technology allowed wide distribution of [[political]] information, [[Renaissance Music]] works, [[Renaissance Dance]] texts, [[heresy|heresies]], and many other works.
=== [[Renaissance Authors]] ===
* [http://www.wikipedia.org/wiki/Andrea_Alciato Andrea Alciato]
* [http://www.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ludovico_Ariosto Ludovico Ariosto]
* [http://www.wikipedia.org/wiki/Leonardo_Bruni Leonardo Bruni]
* [[Giovanni Boccaccio]]
* [http://www.wikipedia.org/wiki/Erasmus_of_Rotterdam Erasmus of Rotterdam]
* [http://www.wikipedia.org/wiki/Michel_de_Montaigne Michel de Montaigne]
* [[Petrarch]], Francesco Petrarca
* [http://www.wikipedia.org/wiki/Castiglione Castiglione]
* [http://www.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coluccio_Salutati Coluccio Salutati]
* [http://www.wikipedia.org/wiki/Francois_Rabelais Francois Rabelais]
* [[William Shakespeare]]
* [http://www.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thomas_More Thomas More]
=== [[Science and Technology in the Renaissance]] ===
[[Science and Technology in the Renaissance]] was focussed around the major sciences of [[astrology]] and [[geometry]], as well as [[medicine]], [[magic]] and [[alchemy]]. Although [[astronomy]] was a major emerging science, it did not truly come into its own until after the end of the [[16th century]]. Until [http://www.wikipedia.org/wiki/Johannes_Kepler Johannes Kepler], [[astronomy]] was a science that was studied purely to enable better understanding of [[astrology]].
For example, [[Copernicus]], probably the man most recognisably a [[scientist]] of his day, studied [[medicine]], [[canon law]] and [[philosophy]] and earned a living as a [[secretary]] and a [[doctor]].
Nonetheless, the advent of the [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Printing_press printing press] did allow for much wider distribution of scientific thought during the Renaissance than had been possible in the [[Middle Ages]] and so [[scientist]]s throughout [[Europe]] were able to collaborate on works and exchange [[theories]] in a way that was not previously possible. Everyone knew what everyone else was working on, even if it was completely wrong.
At that time they believe in 4 elements: Fire, Air, Earth, and Water
=== [[Philosophy in the Renaissance]] ===
* [http://www.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nicholas_of_Cusa Nicholas of Cusa]
* [http://www.wikipedia.org/wiki/Marsilio_Ficino Marsilio Ficino]
* [[Niccolo Machiavelli]]
* [http://www.wikipedia.org/wiki/Francesco_Guicciardini Francesco Guicciardini]
== [[The Arts in the Renaissance]] ==
=== [[Renaissance Painting and Scupture]] ===
* [http://www.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fra_Angelico Fra Angelico]
* [http://www.wikipedia.org/wiki/Giotto_di_Bondone Giotto di Bondone]
* [http://www.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hieronymus_Bosch Hieronymus Bosch]
* [http://www.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pieter_Brueghel_the_Elder Pieter Brueghel the Elder]
* [http://www.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pieter_Brueghel_the_Younger Pieter Brueghel the Younger]
* [http://www.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jan_Brueghel_the_Elder Jan Brueghel the Elder]
* [http://www.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jan_Brueghel_the_Younger Jan Brueghel the Younger]
* [http://www.wikipedia.org/wiki/Filippo_Brunelleschi Filippo Brunelleschi]
* [http://www.wikipedia.org/wiki/Donatello Donatello]
* [http://www.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sandro_Botticelli Sandro Botticelli]
* [http://www.wikipedia.org/wiki/Albrecht_Durer Albrecht Durer]
* [http://www.wikipedia.org/wiki/Michelangelo Michelangelo]
* [http://www.wikipedia.org/wiki/Raffaello_Santi Raphael], Raffaello Sanzio
* [http://www.wikipedia.org/wiki/Leonardo_da_Vinci Leonardo da Vinci]
* [http://www.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jan_van_Eyck Jan van Eyck]
* [http://www.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rogier_van_der_Weyden Rogier van der Weyden]
=== [[Renaissance Music]] ===
The advent of the [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Printing_press printing press] in the Renaissance allowed the wide distribution of printed music. This allowed composers to sell their work more widely and obtain a better living. Important Renaissance composers and arrangers of music include [http://www.wikipedia.org/wiki/Josquin_Des_Prez Josquin Des Prez] and [[Tielman Susato]].
=== [[Renaissance Dance]] ===
Although dance as an art form was well known in the [[middle ages]], the first recorded dance instructions and [[choreography]] date from the middle of the [[15th century]].
Early Italian dancemasters include [[Domenico da Piacenza]] and his students [[Antonio Cornazano]] and [[Guglielmo Ebreo]] (Guglielmo the [[Jew]]).
Dance masters of the late [[16th century]] include the Italians [[Fabritio Caroso]] and [[Cesare Negri]] as well as the frenchmen [[Thoinot Arbeau]] and [[Antoine Arena]].

Revision as of 17:20, 22 May 2005

Life in the Renaissance

Although the Renaissance was a time of significant change in comparison to the Middle Ages, there were times of both peace and prosperity, and war, disease and famine. For the average man in the street (or village) daily life had changed little since the Middle Ages. Diet was similar, life was short (an average life expectancy of 30 - 35 years in most parts of Europe, with perhaps a 50% child mortality rate within the first year of life), and war and disease were commonplace.

In comparison to the 14th century, however, the 15th century and the 16th century were both times of population growth, economic growth, and relative prosperity, especially for the town people and those of privilege.

Religion in the Renaissance

Religion in the Renaissance can be best summed up by saying that the Renaissance was a period of huge religious turmoil. The studies and teachings of the Humanists eventually lead to the Reformation, and many of the religious debates can be broadly (and as inaccurately as broad generalisations usually are) categorised as a battle between the establishment and the new blood.

Undoubtedly one of the major threads was forged by Henry VIII of England when he declared his realm independant of Rome, establishing his own Church of England, and thereby beginning the trend whereby the Catholic Church ceased to be able to provide a supra-national force of unification.