Old Norse Religion
The relgious beliefs of the Vikings and other pagan Scandavavians are generally referred to as the Old Norse Religion. There is no evidence that the Norse themselves ever had a specific name for their religious beliefs and practices. Belief in the old gods was an integral part of their lives. To separate the need to worship the gods and avoid their wrath from other daily activities would have been alien to their way of thinking. Only with the coming of Christianity did it become necessary to distinguish between the new faith and the old ways. This article will focus primarily on the historical aspects of the Norse religion.
As with most religions in pre-Christian Europe, the Norse worshipped a pantheon of deities. Each god or goddess held a specific sphere of influence in the world. The Norse deities were divided into two races, the Æsir and the Vanir.
- Oðin/Wotan (chief of the gods, his principal day was Wednesday; according to legend, he sacrificed an eye to learn the secret of the Runes. He is also identified with the Roman god, Mercury)
- Freyr & Freyja (twin brother and sister, they were the deities of love, sex, and fertility; they belonged to the lesser race of Vanir and their joint day is Friday; Freya is also identified with Venus)
- Tyr/Tiw (god of law and warfare, his cult was not widespread among the Vikings; due to oath-breaking, he was obliged to sacrifice one of his hands to the wolf, Fenris)
an ethnic faith
Unlike universal religions such as Christianity and Islam, the Old Norse religion did not actively seek converts. One became a worshipper of the gods by virtue of one's birth or by marrying into a Norse family. Outsiders had their own gods to watch over them, and any stranger seeking to convert would most likely have been considered a social outcast. As the Vikings settled in news lands, they began to adopt the religious traditions of their neighbors, especially Christianity. Many of the Norse however clung to both traditions, publicly professing Christianity, while worshipping the old gods in private.
Lee M. Hollander (trans), The Poetic Edda, Univeristy of Texas Press, 1962, 1999
Gerald Simons, Barbarian Europe, Time-Life Books, 1968