Normandy is a region in the North of France, lying on the English Channel.
The Viking leader Rollo who had besieged Paris was given Normandy in 911 under the Treaty of St. Claire, in return for defending it against future pirate attacks. By the 11th century the Norman people had become a mixture of native Franks and Viking immigrants.
Norman culture spread into England with the Norman Conquest led by the Duke of Normandy in 1066, William the Conqueror. Normandy was sporadically under English control, until the end of the Hundred Years' War in 1453, from which point it remained with France until World War II.
The Dukes of Normandy
An amount of this, including most of the details of children, has been "listed" from the research of Robert Sewell, who has placed it on the Web at .
- Rollo (also known as Rolf, and, after baptism, Robert). The original "Norman", a Viking raider who seized land along the River Seine around 911CE, fought with king Charles III the Simple of France, was ceded what is now Normandy in return for stopping his raids, and was recognised as its feudal tenant (although it is not clear whether or not he received the formal title of Duke). His first wife, Poppa of Valois, was a descendant of Charlemagne. His eldest son succeeded him in Normandy. He died around 932CE.
- William Longsword. Rollo's son, he may have been born before his father "acquired" Normandy. He succeeded his father in 927CE, and married another female descendant of Charlemagne, Adela (or Sprota) of Senlis. His eldest son succeded him on his death in 942. There is no evidence to point to his having received the ducal title.
- Richard the Fearless. Born in 933CE, he took over Normandy at the age of 9 from his deceased father. He married Emma of Paris, a daughter of Hugh "the Great" Capet, and later Gunnor of Crepon, thereby legitimising any children he had previously had by her. His eldest son succeeded him, but again Richard does not appear to have attained the formal rank of duke. Along his other children were Emma of Normandy, born about 986, who married kingAethelred Unraed of England in 1002, and bore him a son who was to be king Edward the Confessor. After Aethelred's death, she married Canute (or Cnut), who was then king in Aethlred's place, in 1012, and bore him Hardicanute, king from 1035-40. Also Hawise who married Geoffrey, Duke of Brittany.
- Richard the Good. Son of the Fearless, his first wife was Judith of Brittany, daughter of Duke Conan (the Crooked).