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Moonstone is a chatoyant variety of feldspar that occurs in all the colors of the full moon—silver white, golden peach, and slate blue. There are also colorless varieties, known as rainbow moonstone, which are especially prized. Regardless of color, all moonstone exhibits a silvery blue gleam that appears to come from just below the surface.

Whether moonstone was known in the Middle Ages is uncertain. Pliny's description of selenite would indicate at least a second hand knowledge of the stone. But his description could also apply to gypsum, a fairly common mineral. On the other hand, Albertus Magnus' description of the same stone a thousand years later is vague and confused. Possibly, the name "moonstone" was applied to a variety of gemstones, such as cat's-eye, opal, and star sapphire.