Difference between revisions of "Middle Ages"

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The '''Middle Ages''' (adjective = '''medieval''') was the ''middle'' period in a schematic division of [[European history]] into three 'ages': Classical civilization, the Middle Ages, and Modern Civilization. It is commonly considered as having lasted from the end of the Western [[Roman Empire]] ([[5th century]]) until the rise of national [[monarchy|monarchies]] and the beginnings of demographic and economic renewal after the [[Black Death]], [[Europe]]an overseas exploration and the cultural revival known as the [[Renaissance]] around the [[15th century]].
CHARELMAGNE
 
Charlemagne was the king of frank even though he was a german blood
 
He hated chess and had 5 wifes and 17 children!!
 
He hated to be king
 
He was empored by a priest on christmas day
 
He made a bridge over the Rhine river
 
He had constructed hot baths and had a brother
 
To this day he is still important.
 
But he lies today in a peaceful grave that lies with soothing happieness.
 
May Carolus Magnus bodd be happy and willing forever and ever and may god watch ove him in his throne up in heaven where everyone will go up and he will warmly greet you
 
He suffered of dicese
 
   
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As the later Roman Empire changed its form and collapsed in the West, several [[Germanic]] and later [[Slavic]] peoples and the still-powerful regional noble families of the later Empire competed for power in different parts of Europe with one another and with the surviving eastern portion of the Roman Empire (commonly called the [[Byzantine Empire]] by modern Europeans).
   
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The early part of the period is marked in western Europe by the greatly reduced power of centralised administration and the consequent alienation of [[government]] authority and responsibility for military organisation, [[tax]]ation and [[law]] and order at successive levels to provincial and local [[lord]]s supported directly from the proceeds of a portion of the territories over which they held military, political and judicial power. The later Middle Ages would see the regrowth of centralized power as countries came to be aware of their own national identities and strong rulers sought to expand the territory they organized under a central government. One well known version of this consolidation is known as the [[Albigensian Crusade]].
   
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This hierarchy of reciprocal obligations, known as [[feudalism]] or the feudal system, binding each man to serve his superior in return for the latter's protection made for a confusion of territorial [[sovereign]]ty (as allegiances were subject to change over time, and were sometimes mutally contradictory), but the resulting ability of local arrangements to function in the absence of a strong royal power provided some resiliency in a political order distinguished by its lack of uniformity.
   
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The spread of [[Christian]]ity from the Mediterranean area and from [[Ireland]] and [[Scotland]] throughout Europe and the absence of any firm alternative ideological basis for power meant that ecclesiastics became deeply involved in government, and provided the basis for a first European "identity" in the form of a [[religion]] common to most of the continent from at least the [[9th century]] until the separation of the [[Catholic]] and [[Orthodox church]]es (1054).
All hail him 4 ever
 
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An example of this identity at work is the period loosely identified as the [[Crusade]]s, during which [[Pope]]s, [[king]]s, and [[emperor]]s tried to draw on Christian unity to wage [[war]] on [[Islam]], which was spreading along Europe's southern and eastern borders. Political unanimity in Europe was largely illusory, and the military support for most crusades was drawn from limited regions of Europe. Substantial areas of northern Europe also remained outside Christendom until the [[12th century|twelfth century]] or later.
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'''[[Periodization]]'''
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It is extremely difficult to decide when the Middle Ages ended, and in fact scholars assign different starting dates for the [[Renaissance]] in different parts of Europe. Most scholars who work in [[15th century]] [[Italy|Italian]] history, for instance, consider themselves Renaissance or Early Modern historians, while anyone working on [[England]] in the early 15th century is considered a medievalist. Others choose specific events, such as the Turkish capture of [[Constantinople]] or the end of the Anglo-French [[Hundred Years' War]] (both [[1453]]), or the fall of Muslim [[Spain]] or [[Christopher Columbus]]'s voyage to [[the Americas|America]] (both [[1492]]), to mark the period's end.
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Similar differences are now emerging in connection with the start of the period. Traditionally, the Middle Ages is said to begin when the West Roman Empire formally ceased to exist in 476 CE. However, that date is not important in itself, since the West Roman Empire had been very weak for some time, while Roman culture was to survive at least in Italy for yet a few decades or more. Today, some date the beginning of the Middle Ages to the division and Christanisation of the Roman Empire ([[4th century]]) while others see the period to the rise of Islam ([[7th century]]) as "late Classical".
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The Middle Ages in the West are often subdivided into an early period (sometimes called the "[[Dark Ages]]", at least from the fifth to eighth centuries) of shifting polities, a relatively low level of economic activity and successful incursions by non-Christian peoples (Slavs, [[Arab]]s, [[Scandinavia]]ns, [[Magyar]]s); a middle period (the High Middle Ages) of developed institutions of lordship and [[vassal]]age, [[castle]]-building and [[cavalry|mounted warfare]], and reviving urban and commercial life; and a later period of growing [[royal]] power, the rise of commercial interests and weakening customary ties of dependence, especially after the [[14th century|14th-century]] [[plague]].
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== Life in medieval Europe ==
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* [[arts]] and [[cultural life]]
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** [[literature]]
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** [[poetry]]
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** [[dance]]
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** [[architecture]] and [[sculpture]]
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** [[European music]]
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*** the [[troubador]]
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** [[murals]] and [[paintings]]
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** [[tapestry]], and [[handicrafts]]
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** [[books]], [[manuscript]]s, scribes and the art of [[making books]]
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** [[universities]]
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* [[monastic orders]]
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** [[Benedictines]]
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** [[Carthusians]]
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** [[Cistercians]]
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* mendicant friars
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** [[Dominicans]]
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** [[Franciscans]]
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** [[Carmelites]]
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* [[Black Death]] and [[health]] of populations
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* [[politics]] and [[religion]]
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** [[Crusades]]
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** [[Papacy]]
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** [[Inquisition]]
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** [[Heresy]] e.g [[John Wyclif]]
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** [[Alchemy]]
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* [[everyday life]] in the Middle Ages
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** [[guilds]] of [[craftsmen]]
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** [[Danse macabre]]
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==Internal Links==
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* [[warfare]]
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* [[fortification]]
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* [[siege weaponry]]
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* [[Inquisition]]
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* [[European music]]
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* [[dance]]
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* [[Pilgrimage]]
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* [[Romanesque Architecture]]
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=== External [[Garb]] Links ===
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* One theory on how to make a [[bliaut]] and one of the better methods - http://jauncourt.i8.com/bliautho.htm
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* The clothing index for Marguerie's Pages - http://jauncourt.i8.com/costume.htm
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* Some Extant Clothing of the Middle Ages - http://www.virtue.to/articles/extant.html
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* Some clothing of the Middle Ages, includes many sketches - http://www.personal.utulsa.edu/~marc-carlson/cloth/bockhome.html
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* Marc Carlsons' Excellent site. Goes up until the end of the [[16th century]] - http://www.personal.utulsa.edu/~marc-carlson/shoe/SHOEHOME.HTM
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* Comparative study of Extant garments relevant to East [[Denmark]] - http://www.forest.gen.nz/Medieval/articles/garments/garments.html
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* Robin Netherton's excellent work on the [[gothic]] fitted dress - http://netherton.net/robin/
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* Another way of making [[kirtle]]s - http://sca-garb.freservers.com/articles/corikirtle.html
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* Ten gore dress from Herjolfnes - http://sca-garb.freservers.com/articles/cotehardie.html
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* Summary of Women's [[Cotehardie]]s - http://www.loudzen.com/users/jessica/cotehardie/index.html
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[[category:periods]]

Revision as of 14:23, 28 May 2007

The Middle Ages (adjective = medieval) was the middle period in a schematic division of European history into three 'ages': Classical civilization, the Middle Ages, and Modern Civilization. It is commonly considered as having lasted from the end of the Western Roman Empire (5th century) until the rise of national monarchies and the beginnings of demographic and economic renewal after the Black Death, European overseas exploration and the cultural revival known as the Renaissance around the 15th century.

As the later Roman Empire changed its form and collapsed in the West, several Germanic and later Slavic peoples and the still-powerful regional noble families of the later Empire competed for power in different parts of Europe with one another and with the surviving eastern portion of the Roman Empire (commonly called the Byzantine Empire by modern Europeans).

The early part of the period is marked in western Europe by the greatly reduced power of centralised administration and the consequent alienation of government authority and responsibility for military organisation, taxation and law and order at successive levels to provincial and local lords supported directly from the proceeds of a portion of the territories over which they held military, political and judicial power. The later Middle Ages would see the regrowth of centralized power as countries came to be aware of their own national identities and strong rulers sought to expand the territory they organized under a central government. One well known version of this consolidation is known as the Albigensian Crusade.

This hierarchy of reciprocal obligations, known as feudalism or the feudal system, binding each man to serve his superior in return for the latter's protection made for a confusion of territorial sovereignty (as allegiances were subject to change over time, and were sometimes mutally contradictory), but the resulting ability of local arrangements to function in the absence of a strong royal power provided some resiliency in a political order distinguished by its lack of uniformity.

The spread of Christianity from the Mediterranean area and from Ireland and Scotland throughout Europe and the absence of any firm alternative ideological basis for power meant that ecclesiastics became deeply involved in government, and provided the basis for a first European "identity" in the form of a religion common to most of the continent from at least the 9th century until the separation of the Catholic and Orthodox churches (1054).

An example of this identity at work is the period loosely identified as the Crusades, during which Popes, kings, and emperors tried to draw on Christian unity to wage war on Islam, which was spreading along Europe's southern and eastern borders. Political unanimity in Europe was largely illusory, and the military support for most crusades was drawn from limited regions of Europe. Substantial areas of northern Europe also remained outside Christendom until the twelfth century or later.

Periodization

It is extremely difficult to decide when the Middle Ages ended, and in fact scholars assign different starting dates for the Renaissance in different parts of Europe. Most scholars who work in 15th century Italian history, for instance, consider themselves Renaissance or Early Modern historians, while anyone working on England in the early 15th century is considered a medievalist. Others choose specific events, such as the Turkish capture of Constantinople or the end of the Anglo-French Hundred Years' War (both 1453), or the fall of Muslim Spain or Christopher Columbus's voyage to America (both 1492), to mark the period's end.

Similar differences are now emerging in connection with the start of the period. Traditionally, the Middle Ages is said to begin when the West Roman Empire formally ceased to exist in 476 CE. However, that date is not important in itself, since the West Roman Empire had been very weak for some time, while Roman culture was to survive at least in Italy for yet a few decades or more. Today, some date the beginning of the Middle Ages to the division and Christanisation of the Roman Empire (4th century) while others see the period to the rise of Islam (7th century) as "late Classical".

The Middle Ages in the West are often subdivided into an early period (sometimes called the "Dark Ages", at least from the fifth to eighth centuries) of shifting polities, a relatively low level of economic activity and successful incursions by non-Christian peoples (Slavs, Arabs, Scandinavians, Magyars); a middle period (the High Middle Ages) of developed institutions of lordship and vassalage, castle-building and mounted warfare, and reviving urban and commercial life; and a later period of growing royal power, the rise of commercial interests and weakening customary ties of dependence, especially after the 14th-century plague.

Life in medieval Europe

Internal Links

External Garb Links