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Melancholic is a temperament of the four humours, corresponding to black bile. A person who is despondent and listless is referred to as melancholic. It is related to the element earth, and is considered cold and dry. Melancholic people were believed to be inclined towards nervous and reproductive disorders.

Melancholy was a fashionable condition of the Renaissance, particularly in Elizabethan England.

The Four humours
Sanguine | Choleric | Melancholic | phlegmatic