Difference between revisions of "Galliard"

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The '''galliard''' is a lively [[dance]] performed in 6/8 time, with a distinctive rhythm (stresses on beats 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 1/2 and 6, as in ''God Save the Queen''). Although created as a dance form, it was also used as a form for purely instrumental music, with musicians from [[France]] and [[England]] offering several different galliards in almost every instrumental book of the late [[16th century|16th]] and early [[17th century|17th]] centuries. As both a dance and instrumental piece, the galliard traditionally followed a [[pavan]].
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== Arbeau on the Galliard ==
 
== Arbeau on the Galliard ==
[[Arbeau]] writes that the galliard is also called a five step, and is a "quick and gay dance" most suitable for young folk. It is closely related to the [[tourdion]] which can be considered a slow form of Galliard.
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[[Arbeau]] writes that the galliard is also called a five step, and is a "quick and gay dance" most suitable for young folk. It is closely related to the [[tourdion]] which can be considered a smaller and faster form of Galliard.
   
The dance begins with a gentleman holding a lady by the hand. He [[reverance]]s to her and the dance begins. The pair circle the room, dancing gently (toudion fashion for the ladies comfort), and then the lady dances away alone. The gentleman, now free to perform more boisterous kicks, follows untill he stands in front of the lady. In this position he can exhibit his most elabourate and boisterous steps for the lady and audience.
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The dance begins with a gentleman holding a lady by the hand. He [[reverence]]s to her and the dance begins. The pair circle the room, dancing gently (tourdion fashion) or else simply walking, and then the lady dances away alone. The gentleman, now free to perform more boisterous kicks, follows untill he stands in front of the lady. In this position he can exhibit his most elabourate and boisterous steps for the lady and audience, and he turns once per six-count bar as he does these steps.
   
The galliard consists of four steps, whose composition varies, followed by a [[saut majeur]] and [[posture]]. This is accompanied by music with six beats, although normally the 5th beat may be a rest.
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The galliard consists of four steps, whose composition varies, followed by a [[saut majeur]] and [[posture]]. This is accompanied by music with six beats, although normally the 5th beat may be a rest.
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In the discussion below, brief tranlations of the dance steps will be given, but the step descriptions (linked) give more intricate detail of the movements.
   
 
[[Arbeau]] suggests the following step sequence for a galliard:
 
[[Arbeau]] suggests the following step sequence for a galliard:
*[[grve gauche]] - high kick left
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*[[grève gauche]] - high kick left (forward with left foot)
*[[grve droit]] - high kick right
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*[[grève droite]] - high kick right (forward with right foot)
*[[grve gauche]] - high kick left
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*[[grève gauche]] - high kick left
*[[grve droit]] - high kick right
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*[[grève droite]] - high kick right
*[[saut majeur]]
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*[[saut majeur]] - high jump
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*[[posture gauche]] - left foot some distance in front of the right, both with soles flat to the floor, front foot pointing forwards, back foot diagonally sideways. Legs are not bent very deeply, and weight is on both feet.
*[[posture gauche]]
 
   
This is followed by repeating these steps, beginning on the opposite foot, and then beginning on the the left foot again. The sequence of ''' five steps ''' (the [[saut majeur]] isn't counted) is continued, with variations, for the duration of the music. [[Arbeau]] appears to prefer that two ''five steps''', ie one starting with each foot, are completed before choosing a new variation, or repeating the variation.
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This is followed by repeating these steps, beginning on the opposite foot, and then beginning on the the left foot again. For the variations, Arbeau has the steps begin to the opposite side from the above instructions. The sequence of ''' five steps ''' (the [[saut majeur]] isn't counted) is continued, with variations, for the duration of the music. [[Arbeau]] appears to prefer that two ''five steps''', ie one starting with each foot, are completed before choosing a new variation, or repeating the variation.
   
   
 
===some variations suggested by Arbeau===
 
===some variations suggested by Arbeau===
 
*Annother cinq pas
*use [[pied crois droit]] and [[pied crois gauche]] instead of [[grve droit]] and [[grve gauche]] (kick right)
 
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**[[pied croisé droit]] - hook right foot around in front of left leg
*Annother set
 
**[[grve droit]] - high kick right
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**[[pied croisé droit]] - repeating the previous action
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**[[pied croisé gauche]] - hook left foot around in front of right leg
**[[posture droit]] '''without''' [[petit saut]] - A posture but with only the heel of the front foot touching the ground and the knee kept rigid (straight).
 
**[[entretaille gauche]] '''resulting in''' [[grve droit]]
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**[[pied croisé gauche]] - repeating the previous action
**[[grve gauche]] - high kick left
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**[[saut majeur]] - jump
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**[[posture gauche]] - posture, left foot in front
**[[saut majeur]]
 
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*Annother cinq pas
**[[posture gauche]]
 
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**[[grève droite]] - high kick right
 
**[[posture droite]] '''without''' [[petit saut]] - A posture but with only the heel of the front foot touching the ground and the knee held stiff and straight.
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**[[entretaille gauche]] '''resulting in''' [[grève droite]]
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**[[grève gauche]] - high kick left
 
**[[saut majeur]] - jump
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**[[posture gauche]] - posture, left foot in front
 
*For the galliard 'love let me kiss""
 
*For the galliard 'love let me kiss""
**[[ruade droit]]
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**[[ruade droite]] - right foot kick backwards
**[[pied crois]] '''or''' [[grve gauche]]
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**[[pied croisé gauche]] - left foot crossed in front of right leg '''or''' [[grève gauche]] - high kick left
**[[ruade droit]]
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**[[ruade droite]] - right foot kick backwards
**[[entretaille droit]] '''resulting in''' [[grve gauche]]
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**[[entretaille droite]] '''resulting in''' [[grève gauche]]
**[[saut majeur]]
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**[[saut majeur]] - jump
**[[posture droit]]
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**[[posture droite]] - posture, right foot in front
 
*More variations suggested for the galliard 'love let me kiss""
 
*More variations suggested for the galliard 'love let me kiss""
**[[pieds joits]]
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**[[pieds joints]] - feet together with straight legs
**[[grve droite]]
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**[[grève droite]] - high kick right
**[[ruade droite]]
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**[[ruade droite]] - right foot kick backwards
**[[entretaille droit]] '''resulting in''' [[grve gauche]]
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**[[entretaille droite]] '''resulting in''' [[grève gauche]] - transfer of weight leading to high kick right
**[[saut majeur]]
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**[[saut majeur]] - jump
**[[posture droit]]
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**[[posture droite]] - posture, right foot in front
*substitute [[posture]]s for the [[pied joints]] in the above two variations
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*Substitute [[posture]]s for the [[pieds joints]] (feet together) in the above two variations
*substitute [[posture]]s danced sideways as if they were [[pieds largis]], for the [[pied joints]] in the above two variations
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*Substitute [[posture]]s danced sideways as if they were [[pieds largis]] (feet flat, legs apart, weight evenly distributed), for the [[pied joints]] (feet together) in the above two variations
*Very nimble dancers may replace the [[saut majeur]] with a [[capriole]], however they should not attempt it if prevents them from acheieving the [[posture]] in the correct timing.
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*Very nimble dancers may replace the [[saut majeur]] (jump) with a [[capriole]] (kicking jump), however they should not attempt it if prevents them from acheieving the [[posture]] in the correct timing.
*galliards which consist of seven steps or eleven steps or other combination are also described by [[Arbeau]]
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*Galliards which consist of seven steps or eleven steps or other combination are also described by [[Arbeau]]
*[[La volta]] is a variety of galliard
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*[[La volta]] is a variety of galliard in which the woman leaps supported by the man.
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[[Category:Dances]]

Latest revision as of 09:11, 13 September 2009

The galliard is a lively dance performed in 6/8 time, with a distinctive rhythm (stresses on beats 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 1/2 and 6, as in God Save the Queen). Although created as a dance form, it was also used as a form for purely instrumental music, with musicians from France and England offering several different galliards in almost every instrumental book of the late 16th and early 17th centuries. As both a dance and instrumental piece, the galliard traditionally followed a pavan.

Arbeau on the Galliard

Arbeau writes that the galliard is also called a five step, and is a "quick and gay dance" most suitable for young folk. It is closely related to the tourdion which can be considered a smaller and faster form of Galliard.

The dance begins with a gentleman holding a lady by the hand. He reverences to her and the dance begins. The pair circle the room, dancing gently (tourdion fashion) or else simply walking, and then the lady dances away alone. The gentleman, now free to perform more boisterous kicks, follows untill he stands in front of the lady. In this position he can exhibit his most elabourate and boisterous steps for the lady and audience, and he turns once per six-count bar as he does these steps.

The galliard consists of four steps, whose composition varies, followed by a saut majeur and posture. This is accompanied by music with six beats, although normally the 5th beat may be a rest.

In the discussion below, brief tranlations of the dance steps will be given, but the step descriptions (linked) give more intricate detail of the movements.

Arbeau suggests the following step sequence for a galliard:

  • grève gauche - high kick left (forward with left foot)
  • grève droite - high kick right (forward with right foot)
  • grève gauche - high kick left
  • grève droite - high kick right
  • saut majeur - high jump
  • posture gauche - left foot some distance in front of the right, both with soles flat to the floor, front foot pointing forwards, back foot diagonally sideways. Legs are not bent very deeply, and weight is on both feet.

This is followed by repeating these steps, beginning on the opposite foot, and then beginning on the the left foot again. For the variations, Arbeau has the steps begin to the opposite side from the above instructions. The sequence of five steps (the saut majeur isn't counted) is continued, with variations, for the duration of the music. Arbeau appears to prefer that two five steps', ie one starting with each foot, are completed before choosing a new variation, or repeating the variation.


some variations suggested by Arbeau