Drawn thread work
Drawn-thread work is generally considered to be among the first types of true lace. It was created by taking ordinary linen, and pulling out certain threads, or cutting other threads, to create spaces in the linen, and stitching around the holes to makes rue they remained strong. This is similar in principle to modern hardanger - but hardanger itself is very much out of period. Laces made in this fashion were quite popular and were used in skirts, aprons and table-ware.
After a while, the laces became more and more "lacy" with more and more gaps - this become know as "punto in aria" (points in the air).
Eventually the lacemakers realised that, rather than starting with whole-cloth and removing threads, they could start with nothing, and make braids from needle-made stitches that looked like the cloth left over from pulling out the threads. this was the birth of needle lace and the style of lace was generally called reticella.