Difference between revisions of "Crusade"

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Any [[Europe]]an military expedition to free the [[Holy Land]] from [[Muslim]] occupation that was sanctioned by the Western Patriarchy (Roman Church, or Roman Catholics as they are known now). These expeditions occurred during between the [[11th century]] and the [[14th century]].  
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The '''Crusades''' were various [[Europe]]an military expeditions to free the [[Holy Land]] from [[Muslim]] occupation (or to reinforce the [[Kingdom of Jerusalem]]) that were sanctioned by the [[Catholic Church|Church of Rome]]. These expeditions occurred during between the [[11th century]] and the [[14th century]] and were of significant impact to the development of both Europe and the [[Muslim]] world.  Other "crusades" were launched against various heretical branches of the [[Christian]] faith in Europe itself.
  
The First Crusade was preached by Pope Urban II in 1095.
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One who participated in a crusade is now known as a '''Crusader''', a modern word which comes from the [[latin]] ''crucesignati'' (the ''sign'' or ''[[badge]]'' of the [[cross]]) although in [[period]] this term was not used; instead they were referred to simply as [[pilgrim]]s or euphemistically said to have "taken the Cross" or made the "journey to Jerusalem."
  
The Second Crusade was preached by Pope Eugene III in 1145.
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The crusades had multiple causes: [[Church reform]], increased population in Western Europe, maintaining access to the [[pilgrimage]] sites of the Holy Land, and the growth of the idea of [[knight]]s as [[soldier]]s of the church. The success of the early crusades was due partially to division among the people occupying the [[Middle East]], the failure of later crusades from the division of European efforts.
  
The Third Crusade was preached by Pope Gregory VIII in 1187.
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Crusading was popular because Pope Urban II made a decree that killing non-Christians was not a sin, but in fact a form of penance; killing infidels in Christ's name, he claimed, guaranteed one a place in Heaven.  Interestingly, [[Muslim]] leaders assured their people that killing the invading Franks likewise guaranteed access to Paradise, which may explain the particularly sanguinary and brutal nature of warfare in the Holy Land.
  
The Fourth Crusade was preached in 1198 by Pope Innocent III.
 
  
The Fifth Crusade was preached in 1216 by Pope Honorius III.
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==Crusades==
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* The [[First Crusade]] was preached by [[Pope]] [[Urban II]] in 1095.
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* The [[Second Crusade]] was preached by Pope [[Eugene III]] in 1145.
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* The [[Third Crusade]] was preached by Pope [[Gregory VIII]] in 1187.
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* The [[Fourth Crusade]] was preached in 1198 by Pope [[Innocent III]].
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* The [[Fifth Crusade]] was preached in 1216 by Pope [[Honorius III]].
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* The [[Sixth Crusade]] was the product of [[Frederick II]], [[Emperor]] of [[Germany]] ([[Holy Roman Emperor]]) commencing approximately 1225.
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* The [[Seventh Crusade|Seventh]], and final major Crusade was the work of [[King]] [[Louis IX]] of [[France]], and departed Europe in 1248.
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* The [[Eighth Crusade]] finished in 1270, having being fought mainly by [[mercenary]] troops as there was little land to offer as enticement.
  
The Sixth Crusade was the product of Frederick II, Emporer of Germany (Holy Roman Emporer) commencing approximately 1225.
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==Other Crusades==
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Other "Crusades" include Peter the Hermit's "[[People's Crusade]]" that actually preceded the First Crusade by virtue of setting off and "crusading" against other [[Christian]]s in Europe first.
  
The Seventh, and final major Crusade was the work of King Louis IX of France, and departed Europe in 1248.
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The [[Crusade of 1101]] was a dismal failure, and was little more than a second wave of the First Crusade that was poorly co-ordinated and resulted in three major European armies being defeated by [[Turkey|Turks]].
 
 
The Eighth Crusade finished in 1270, having being fought mainly by mercenary troops as there was little land to offer as enticement.
 
 
 
 
 
Other "Crusades" include Peter the Hermit's "People's Crusade" that actually preceded the First Crusade by virtue of setting off and "crusading" against non-Christians in Europe firstly.
 
 
 
The Crusade of 1101 was a dismal failure, and was little more than a second wave of the First Crusade that was poorly co-ordinated and resulted in three major European armies being defeated by Turks.
 
  
 
The [[Albigensian Crusade]], against the [[Cathars]] of Provence started in 1209.
 
The [[Albigensian Crusade]], against the [[Cathars]] of Provence started in 1209.
  
The crusades had multiple causes - [[Church reform]], increased population in Western Europe, and the growth of the idea of [[knight]]s as soldiers of the church. The success of the early crusades was due partially to division among the people occupying the Middle East.
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{{crusades}}
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[[category:crusades]]

Latest revision as of 13:54, 28 September 2008

The Crusades were various European military expeditions to free the Holy Land from Muslim occupation (or to reinforce the Kingdom of Jerusalem) that were sanctioned by the Church of Rome. These expeditions occurred during between the 11th century and the 14th century and were of significant impact to the development of both Europe and the Muslim world. Other "crusades" were launched against various heretical branches of the Christian faith in Europe itself.

One who participated in a crusade is now known as a Crusader, a modern word which comes from the latin crucesignati (the sign or badge of the cross) although in period this term was not used; instead they were referred to simply as pilgrims or euphemistically said to have "taken the Cross" or made the "journey to Jerusalem."

The crusades had multiple causes: Church reform, increased population in Western Europe, maintaining access to the pilgrimage sites of the Holy Land, and the growth of the idea of knights as soldiers of the church. The success of the early crusades was due partially to division among the people occupying the Middle East, the failure of later crusades from the division of European efforts.

Crusading was popular because Pope Urban II made a decree that killing non-Christians was not a sin, but in fact a form of penance; killing infidels in Christ's name, he claimed, guaranteed one a place in Heaven. Interestingly, Muslim leaders assured their people that killing the invading Franks likewise guaranteed access to Paradise, which may explain the particularly sanguinary and brutal nature of warfare in the Holy Land.


Crusades

Other Crusades

Other "Crusades" include Peter the Hermit's "People's Crusade" that actually preceded the First Crusade by virtue of setting off and "crusading" against other Christians in Europe first.

The Crusade of 1101 was a dismal failure, and was little more than a second wave of the First Crusade that was poorly co-ordinated and resulted in three major European armies being defeated by Turks.

The Albigensian Crusade, against the Cathars of Provence started in 1209.

Crusades
First Crusade | Second Crusade | Third Crusade | Fourth Crusade | Fifth Crusade | Sixth Crusade | Seventh Crusade | Eighth Crusade
Northern Crusades | Albigensian Crusade | Reconquista
Peasants' Crusade | Crusade of the Faint-Hearted