Difference between revisions of "12th Century texts"

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=[[Romances]]=
 
=[[Romances]]=
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==Arthurian Romances==
==[[Chretien De Troyes]]== (p. c1160-1180/90)
 
  +
Almost all old french literature was woven in some form into the genre of Arthurian romance - a common hero is a knight from king Arthur's court. Some stories could have been completely independant of Arthurian myth, but choose to add a glancing mention of Arthur or one of his knights to give authority to their story.
Arthurian romances (Yvain, Lancelot, Perceval) and other works (Cliges). A pleasant late 12th century French romance. Many translations widely available. The Burton Raffael translations are good, but a 19th century translation is available from [[Project Gutenberg]]: [http://www.gutenberg.net/browse/BIBREC/BR831.HTM]
 
===Erec and Enide (c. 1170),===
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*"[[Erec and Enide]]" [[Chretien de Troyes]] (Old French, c. 1170)
===Cliges (c. 1176)===
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*"[[Cliges]]" [[Chretien de Troyes]] (Old french, c. 1176)
===Yvain, (1177 to 1181)===
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*"[[Yvain]]", [[Chretien de Troyes]] (Old French,1177 to 1181)
===Lancelot (1177 to 1181)===
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*"[[Lancelot]]" [[Chretien de Troyes]] (Old French, 1177 to 1181)
===Le Conte du Graal aka Perceval le Gallois (c.1180)===
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*"Le Conte du Graal" aka "[[le Roman de Perceval]]" [[Chretien de Troyes]] and other authours (Old French c.1180 with later additions)
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*"ROMAN DE BRUT" (Romance of the Britons), [[Wace]]
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**some translations: ISBN: 0460005782 : 0460015788
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*"ROMAN DE ROU", [[Wace]]
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*"Romans d'Antiquit", [[Wace]]
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*"Roman de Thbes" [[Benot]] (1150-55)
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*"Roman d'Eneas" [[Benot]](1160-65)
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*"Erek" Hartmann von Aue (c. 1190)
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**A later, german, version of Erec & Enide
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*"Merlin" Robert de Boron (french c. 1200)
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*"Joseph d'Arimathea", Robert de Boron (french c. 1200)
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*"Perceval" Robert de Boron (french c. 1200) - completely lost, much influenced the "Didot Perceval" c1205
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*"[[Tristran]]", [[Thomas]]
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*"[[Roman de Tristran]]", [[Broul]] (Old French, late-twelfth-century)
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*"Tristrant und Isalde" Eilhart von Oberge (Middle High German, c. 1170) -poem now lost, 13thC copy remains. German version of Tristrant
   
=="Tristan and Iseult".==
 
"Tristran and Iseult" is an older story (although few versions older than the 12th century remain), but several versions of this work exist from the 12th century, when it enjoyed a period of popularity. There are two main streams of versions of this tale - the courtly and the other. The courtly is about pure love and courtly ideals, while the other versions have more humorous incidents, and focus slightly more on sex than knightly love.
 
====Broul's late-twelfth-century "Roman de Tristran" ====
 
* "Le roman de Tristan / Broul" Herman Braet (trans), E. Story-Scientia, Gand, 1974.
 
**Claims to be a complete modern french translation.
 
* Alan S. Fedrick(trans), "The romance of Tristan; and, The tale of Tristan's madness; translated together for the first time", Harmondsworth, Penguin, 1970, ISBN: 0140442308 .
 
*Norris J. Lacy. (trans) "The romance of Tristran", Garland, New York, 1989, ISBN: 0824087771
 
**A pleasant reading version with academic introduction [[User:Tiff|Tiff]]\
 
* A. Ewert (ed) "The romance of Tristran, by Beroul. A poem of the twelfth century", B. Blackwell, Oxford, 1939-70.
 
**Notes state that this contains the french text, followed by an english commentary (not translation)
 
====Anglo-Norman poet Thomas' version ====
 
 
==Eilhart von Oberge==
 
Middle High German Tristrant
 
*"Tristrant und Isalde" (c. 1170)
 
**poem now lost, 13thC copy remains.
 
 
==[[Marie de France]]==
 
===Breton Lais (old french, late 12th C)===
 
* Glyn S. Burgess and Keith Busby (trans), "The lais of Marie de France", Penguin Books, Harmondsworth, England ; New York, U.S.A. : , 1986. ISBN: 0140444769 (pbk.)
 
* "The Lay of Marie and Vignettes in verse" Matilda Betham, Garland Pub., New York, 1978, ISBN: 0824021126
 
**library record notes: Includes abstracts of the twelve lays of Marie. Reprint of the 1816 and 1818 eds. published by R. Hunter, London.
 
 
 
==[[Wace]], (ca. 1100-ca. 1175., [[fl.]] 1155-1165)==
 
===="ROMAN DE BRUT" (Romance of the Britons)====
 
*some translations: ISBN: 0460005782 : 0460015788
 
===="ROMAN DE ROU" ====
 
===="Romans d'Antiquit"====
 
==Benot ==
 
===="Roman de Thbes" (1150-55)====
 
===="Roman d'Eneas" (1160-65).====
 
==Robert de Boron==
 
french (c. 1200)
 
*Merlin
 
*Joseph d'Arimathea,
 
*Perceval.
 
**completely lost, much influenced the "Didot Perceval" c1205
 
==Hartmann von Aue==
 
*Erek (c. 1190)
 
**A later, german, version of Erec & Enide
 
 
==[[Mabinogion]]==
 
==[[Mabinogion]]==
 
Medieval [[Wales|Welsh]] collection of myths, contained in much later copies
 
Medieval [[Wales|Welsh]] collection of myths, contained in much later copies
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*Geraint, son of Erbin
 
*Geraint, son of Erbin
   
==Anonymous Lays==
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==[[Breton Lays]]==
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These are short poem, often love stories, based on Celtic legends.
*[[Graelant]] Old French c1150-1200
 
*[[Guingamor]] Old French c1150-1200
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*[[Graelant]], anonymous, (Old French c1150-1200)
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*[[Guingamor]], anonymous, (Old French c1150-1200)
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*12 Breton Lais, [[Marie de France]], (old french, late 12th C)
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** Glyn S. Burgess and Keith Busby (trans), "The lais of Marie de France", Penguin Books, Harmondsworth, England ; New York, U.S.A. : , 1986. ISBN: 0140444769 (pbk.)
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** "The Lay of Marie and Vignettes in verse" Matilda Betham, Garland Pub., New York, 1978, ISBN: 0824021126
  +
***library record notes: Includes abstracts of the twelve lays of Marie. Reprint of the 1816 and 1818 eds. published by R. Hunter, London.
   
  +
  +
<hr>
 
=[[Chanson de Geste]]=
 
=[[Chanson de Geste]]=
==Chanson de Roland== 1130-1170
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*[[Chanson de Roland]] (Old French, 1130-1170)
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*[[Chanson de William]]or "La Chanson de Guillaume" (Old French, 1150-1175)
Plot: Loosely based on real events in 778. French King [[Charlemagne]] is fighting in Spain when a fake peace offer is recieved. Knight [[Roland]] volunteers his stepfather, Ganelon, to the almost certainly fatal job of responding to the offer. [[Ganelon]] betrays his King to the Muslems (and assorted demonised non-Christians) in order to get his revenge on Roland. Charlemagne takes the offered gold to return to [[France]], but Ganelon engineers an attack on Roland, who he entraps to lead the rearguard of the army. Roland, too proud to call for Charlemagne's help until too late, is slaughtered along with the 12 finest Lords of France, including his brave companion [[Oliver]]. Charlemagne avenges their death and Ganelon is brought to justice by trial.
 
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*[[Raoul de Cambrai]](Old French, c.1180-1200)
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*[[Guillaume d'Orange]] (Old French 12th C)
   
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<hr>
 
poetic style: [[decasyllabic assonanced couplets]] in [[Old French]]
 
 
===translations:===
 
Very widely translated, one of the most famous chansons.
 
*"The Song of Roland" trans Glyn Burgess (Penguin Books, London, 1990) ISBN: 0-14-044532-3
 
translation style: English translated line by line, some editing of word order for easier reading. Part of the old French Text presented in an appendix.
 
 
==Chanson de William== or "La Chanson de Guillaume" 1150-1175
 
Plot: Some fighting in which some knights are too proud to call [[William of Orange]] for help and so die heroically, also causing the death of their friends. Some more fighting in which William avenges their deaths, and dies heroically. Some fighting in which King Louis avenges William's death, mostly won by the humorous noble-born peasant who insists on killing everyone with a lump of wood instead of real weapons.
 
poetic style: [[decasyllabic assonanced couplets]] in [[Old French]]
 
structure: Disparate related stories about William, possibly developped orally, are combined together by a 13th C Anglo-Norman author, who tries to edit away inconsistencies between versions. This results in a story with some continuous narrative, but characters with very similar names keep appearing after the death of their namesake, and minor characters keep getting resurrected after death. Not an easy poem for the modern reader.
 
 
===translation:===
 
"La Chanson de Guillaume" trans Philip E.Bennett (Grant & Cutler LTD, London, 2000), ISBN 0-7293-0421-3
 
translation style: modern text, not prose in any form, given on the same page as old French text. Special care is taken to conserve the meaning of the original, but not to convey it's poetic style.
 
 
==Raoul de Cambrai== c. 1180-1200
 
Plot: The fief of Raoul's deceased father is given away by Louis to another vassal; Raoul later attempts to reclaim his lands during an audience with the king. Louis instead offers to Raoul the next fief to become vacant (which becomes that of Hubert de Vermandois) but when its lord dies, Louis hesitates in giving the land to Raoul, as Vermandois has four sons looking to keep their fief. Raoul and the Vermandois heirs then go to war. After torching the Vermandois town of Origny, in which lived the mother of Raoul's squire Bernier, Bernier declares that he will have vengeance upon his master and manages to fulfil his oath. Then, Raoul's uncle Guerri kills Bernier and the vendetta remains in play. Guerri later manages to escape from his home into exile and out of record.
 
===translation:===
 
Raoul de Cambrai: Edited with Introduction, Translation, and Notes. trans. Sarah Kay (Clarendon Press, Oxford, 1992), ISBN 0-1981-5868-8
 
Facing translation and original text.
 
   
 
=Fiction (not necesarily romance)=
 
=Fiction (not necesarily romance)=
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**This appears to be an edition aimed at children.
 
**This appears to be an edition aimed at children.
   
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<hr>
 
=Short poetry=
 
=Short poetry=
 
(rather than whole novels written in prose)
 
(rather than whole novels written in prose)
 
*Marie de Champagne
 
*Marie de Champagne
 
*Denis Piramus (Vie Seint Edmund le rei, after 1170)
 
*Denis Piramus (Vie Seint Edmund le rei, after 1170)
==[[Troubadour poetry]]==
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==[[Troubadour poetry]]==
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====Guilhelm IX d'Aquitaine==== 1071-1126
 
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===Guilhelm IX d'Aquitaine===
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1071-1126
 
Father of the troubadour tradition.
 
Father of the troubadour tradition.
====Marcabru==== c. 1127-1150
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===Marcabru===
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c. 1127-1150
 
Innovator of the difficult trobar clus style.
 
Innovator of the difficult trobar clus style.
====Bernart de Ventadorn==== c.1145-1180
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===Bernart de Ventadorn===
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c.1145-1180
 
Author of the troubadour classic "Can vei la lauzeta mover."
 
Author of the troubadour classic "Can vei la lauzeta mover."
====Raimbaut d'Aurenga==== c. 1143-1173
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===Raimbaut d'Aurenga===
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c. 1143-1173
====Peire d'Alvernhe==== fl. 1150-1180
 
====Arnaut Daniel==== fl. 1180-1210
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===Peire d'Alvernhe===
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fl. 1150-1180
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===Arnaut Daniel===
  +
fl. 1180-1210
 
Inventor of the sestina; his most famous piece is "Lo ferm voler q'el cor m'intra."
 
Inventor of the sestina; his most famous piece is "Lo ferm voler q'el cor m'intra."
====Bertrand de Born==== c.1140-1215
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===Bertrand de Born===
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c.1140-1215
====Comtessa de Dia==== late 12th c.
 
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===Comtessa de Dia===
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late 12th c.
 
One of the more famous trobairitz (female troubadours).
 
One of the more famous trobairitz (female troubadours).
====Peire Vidal==== fl. 1175-1205
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===Peire Vidal===
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fl. 1175-1205
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<hr>
   
 
=Histories=
 
=Histories=
==[[Geoffrey, of Monmouth]]== (p. 1136-1148/55)
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*"Historia Regum Britanniae" (History of the Kings of Britain) [[Geoffrey, of Monmouth]] (p. 1136-1148/55)
*"Historia Regum Britanniae" (History of the Kings of Britain) Camb. Univ. Libr. MS.1706
+
**Camb. Univ. Libr. MS.1706
 
**Some translations: ISBN: 0140441700
 
**Some translations: ISBN: 0140441700
=='Hugo Falcandus' (1154-69)==
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*"History of the tyrants of Sicily" 'Hugo Falcandus' (1154-69)
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*"Gesta Regum Anglorum" [[William of Malmesbury]] (England, 1st ed 1125, updates till 1135-40)
*"History of the tyrants of Sicily"
 
==William of Malmesbury==
 
==="Gesta Regum Anglorum" ===
 
(England, 1st ed 1125, updates till 1135-40)
 
 
**William of Malmesbury. "Willelmi Malmesbriensis monachi De gestis regum Anglorum libri quinque; Historiae novellae libri tres." ed. by W. Stubbs. 2 vols. London, 1887-1889.
 
**William of Malmesbury. "Willelmi Malmesbriensis monachi De gestis regum Anglorum libri quinque; Historiae novellae libri tres." ed. by W. Stubbs. 2 vols. London, 1887-1889.
==="Historia Novella" (england, 1140-1142)===
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*"Historia Novella" [[William of Malmesbury]] (england, 1140-1142)
===William of Malmesbury "Gesta Pontificum", ===
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*"Gesta Pontificum", [[William of Malmesbury]] (england,1st ed 1125, updates till 1140)
(england,1st ed 1125, updates till 1140)
 
 
**William of Malmesbury. Willelmesbiriensis Monachi De gestis ponti ficum Anglorum libri quinque. Ed. by N. E. S. A. Hamilton. London, 1870.
 
**William of Malmesbury. Willelmesbiriensis Monachi De gestis ponti ficum Anglorum libri quinque. Ed. by N. E. S. A. Hamilton. London, 1870.
===Benot "Chronique des Ducs de Normandie"===
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*"Chronique des Ducs de Normandie" [[Benot]]
===Chronica, by Joceline de Brakelond, 1173-1203===
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*"Chronica", Joceline de Brakelond, 1173-1203
 
**In Arnold, T. (ed.) Memorials of St. Edmund's Abbey. 3 vols. London, 1890-96.
 
**In Arnold, T. (ed.) Memorials of St. Edmund's Abbey. 3 vols. London, 1890-96.
  +
*"Lestorie des Engles solum la translacion Mais tre Geffrei Gaimar." [[Gaimar]](England 1135-1147)
===Gaimar===
 
*"Lestorie des Engles solum la translacion Mais tre Geffrei Gaimar." (England 1135-1147)
 
 
**Gaimar, Geoffrey. Lestorie des Engles solum la translacion Mais tre Geffrei Gaimar. ed. by T.D. Hardy and C.T. Martin. 2 vols. London, 1888-1889. Vol. I text, vol. 2 English translation.
 
**Gaimar, Geoffrey. Lestorie des Engles solum la translacion Mais tre Geffrei Gaimar. ed. by T.D. Hardy and C.T. Martin. 2 vols. London, 1888-1889. Vol. I text, vol. 2 English translation.
===unknown "Historia Ramesiensis" or "Liber Benefactorum Ecclesiae Ramesiensis" (c1170)===
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*"Historia Ramesiensis" or "Liber Benefactorum Ecclesiae Ramesiensis" unknown (c1170)
===Ramsey Abbey. Chronicon Abbatiae Rameniensis. Ed. by W. D. Marcay. London, 1886. ===
+
**Ramsey Abbey. Chronicon Abbatiae Rameniensis. Ed. by W. D. Marcay. London, 1886.
  +
*"Henrici Huntendunensis Historia Anglorum" or "the History of the English" [[Henry of Huntingdon]](England, editions from 1130-1154)
===Henry of Huntingdon===
 
*"Henrici Huntendunensis Historia Anglorum" or "the History of the English" (England, editions from 1130-1154)
 
 
**Henry of Huntingdon. Henrici Huntendunensis Historia Anglorum, the History of the English, by Henry, Archdeacon of Huntingdon, from B. C. 55 to A. D. 1154. In eight books. Ed. by T. Arnold. London, 1879.
 
**Henry of Huntingdon. Henrici Huntendunensis Historia Anglorum, the History of the English, by Henry, Archdeacon of Huntingdon, from B. C. 55 to A. D. 1154. In eight books. Ed. by T. Arnold. London, 1879.
   
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<hr>
   
 
=Scientific texts=
 
=Scientific texts=
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*Alexander Nequam (1157-1217)
 
*Alexander Nequam (1157-1217)
   
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<hr>
 
=Other texts/unsorted=
 
=Other texts/unsorted=
 
*William of Malmesbury the history of Glastonbury, and the miracles of the Virgin
 
*William of Malmesbury the history of Glastonbury, and the miracles of the Virgin
*Marie de France - Saint Patrick's Purgatory
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*[[Marie de France]] - [[Saint Patrick's Purgatory]]
**Translation of latin "Tractus de Purgatorio Sancti Patricii" by Henry of Slasbury into old French octosyllabic couplets composed c1190.
 
**modern translation: "Saint Patrick's Purgatory: A poem by Marie de France" trans. Michael J.Curley, (Medieval & Renaissance Texts & Studies, Birmingham, 1993) ISBN 0-86698-18-X
 
Dual text - translation and old French side by side, with numerous notes on similarities to other medieval texts.
 
Describes the visions and harrowings of Purgatory experienced by a Welsh knight in an Irish holy place.
 
   
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<hr>
 
=More 12th C authors=
 
=More 12th C authors=
 
*Gerald of Wales (p. c1187-1216)
 
*Gerald of Wales (p. c1187-1216)

Latest revision as of 16:30, 10 October 2007