Espauder

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The term espauder (possibly also espalier, espaulier and spaulder) is a problematic term that refers to shoulder armour that appears from the late 13th century onwards.

However, the exact shape or nature of this piece of armour is debated as their are no known depictions (as they were hidden under the surcoat) or surviving examples. It is thought that it may have been a padded defence. This definition does distinguish it from the spaulder.